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Vaccines are biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular or group of disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed form of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The microbes used in vaccine mainly stimulates the body’s immune system henceforth, body recognize them as a threat, destroy it, and memorize it so that it can further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in future.
Vaccine can be prophylactic or therapeutic.
The administration of vaccine is called vaccination. Vaccination is known to be the effective method of preventing most of the infectious diseases; vivid immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from most areas of the world.
How Vaccines Work
The effectiveness of many vaccines has been widely reported; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, HPV vaccine and the chicken pox vaccine. The report of World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty five different preventable infections. Childhood immunization i.e., inducing immunity by applying a vaccine is almost a guarantee for protection from many major diseases. This childhood vaccination could prevent nearly 2 million deaths per year worldwide. However, death due to vaccine preventable diseases still continues in some countries of Africa and Asia. Therefore, it is an urgent need to find ways to increase vaccination coverage.
There are several basic strategies for development of vaccine
1) Weakening the virus: The virus are weakened so that they reproduce very poorly once inside the body. The vaccines for measles, mumps, German measles (rubella), rotavirus, oral polio, chickenpox (varicella), and influenza (intranasal version) are made on this principle. The cause disease is usually by reproducing of virus many times in body. Comparing reproducing of natural virus the vaccine virus does not reproduce very much and they don’t cause disease, but vaccine viruses replicate well enough to induce “memory B cells” that protect the body against infection in future. The advantage of this system of vaccination is that one or two doses provide immunity for life-long. But there are limitations as these vaccines cannot be given to people with weakened immune systems i.e, people suffering from cancer or AIDS.
2) Inactivate the virus: The virus is completely inactivated (or killed) under this strategy by use of chemical so that it cannot be reproduced itself or cause disease. The inactivated polio, hepatitis A, influenza (shot) and rabies vaccines are made in this way. By this approach there are benefits like; the vaccine cannot cause even a mild form of the disease that it prevents and it can be used on people with weakened immune system. Only limitation under this system is that it requires several doses to achieve immunity.
3) Use Part of the Virus: Under this strategy just one part of the virus is removed and used as vaccine. The vaccine for hepatitis B, shingles vaccine and human papillomavirus (HPV) are developed by this process. The vaccine is composed of a protein that is available on the surface of the virus. People with weakened immunity may be applied these vaccines and their immunity remains for a long time after administering only 2 doses of vaccine.
4) Use Part of bacteria: There are some bacteria that causes disease by making a harmful protein called toxin. By taking these toxins and inactivating them by chemical several vaccines are made. Vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are made by this process.
In addition to the above there is another strategy to make bacterial vaccine by using part of sugar coating of the bacteria. Children don’t make a good immune response to the sugar coating alone hence the coating is linked to harmless protein to produce vaccine which is called ‘conjugated polysaccharide” vaccine. The Haemophilus influenzae type B (or Hib), pneumococcal, and meningococcal vaccines are made this way.
The most efficient tool for the prevention of infectious diseases both in developed and developing countries is the education of scientists and public health professionals in Vaccinology
Career In Vaccine Research & Development
In the meantime the education for these scientist and health professionals has increased dramatically. Though there is continuous need to improve education in this field many international, regional and national universities are not imparting comprehensive education in vaccinology to medical and biological science students as part of their courses resulting insufficient knowledge on vaccine topics amongst healthcare providers.
Designing of the multidisciplinary vaccinology courses are not meant for educational purposes but they may also contribute to strengthening the development, testing and use of vaccine. Education is therefore considered as most efficient tool for prevention of infectious diseases.
There are various courses available with varied focus and prioritize topics based on students different levels of professional exposure and requirement.
|File Name:||Imran Sajib – Vaccine Design & Development|
|Genre / Category:||FREE COURSE|
|File Size :||7GB|
|Updated and Published:||January 24, 2022|
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